Coast Springs 2020 Water Quality Report

District: Redwood Valley
System: Coast Springs System

A printable version of this report is also available.


Water dropSince 1926, Cal Water has been committed to providing safe, reliable, high-quality water to our customers and communities. When the coronavirus pandemic began in 2020, access to clean water became particularly top of mind. During these difficult times, our commitment to our customers remained as strong as ever.

In this system in 2020, we conducted 3,540 tests on 508 water samples for 165 constituents. We are pleased to confirm that we met every primary and secondary federal and state water quality standard last year.

Our promise to provide quality, service, and value means more than just treatment and testing. It means having expert professionals available to assist with routine services in a safe and efficient manner. It means having personnel available to handle emergencies 24 hours per day. It means maintaining and upgrading the infrastructure needed to transport water through a network of pumps, tanks, and pipes to your tap. It also means that, even with costs increasing across the country, we do everything we can to operate as efficiently as possible to keep your water affordable.

I encourage you to review this annual water quality report, also called your Consumer Confidence Report, as it details any constituents detected in your water supply in 2020 and shows how your water compares to federal and state standards. It also provides information on current water quality issues and steps we are taking to protect your health and safety.

If you have any questions, we are here to assist you. You can reach us by phone or email at our local Customer Center, or online at You can also get water service news on our web site, via our Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram pages, and in your monthly bill. And, please be sure your contact information with Cal Water is up to date by visiting, to ensure we can reach you with important emergency and other information.

Evan Markey, District Manager, Redwood Valley District

[Redwood Valley District | 14028 Armstrong Woods Road | Guerneville, CA 95446 | (800) 220-4299]

Contact Us

If you have any questions, suggestions, or concerns, please contact our local Customer Center, either by phone at (800) 220-4299 or through the Contact Us page.

Your Water System

Water pipesCal Water's Redwood Valley District provides high-quality water utility services to customers in portions of Guerneville, Dillon Beach, Duncans Mills, Lucerne, and Santa Rosa. Our Coast Springs system customers receive groundwater produced by eight wells located throughout the service area, which is processed in our highly advanced membrane treatment plant.

Our company-wide water quality assurance program includes vigilant monitoring throughout our systems and testing at our state-of-the-art laboratory. Additionally, we proactively maintain and upgrade our facilities to ensure a reliable, high-quality supply.

Water Resource Sustainability

Cal Water helps our customers conserve water by offering programs and incentives to reduce indoor and outdoor water use, develop more efficient habits, and educate the next generation about the importance of managing water resources sustainably. We also continue to invest diligently in our infrastructure to reduce the amount of water lost to pipeline leaks and are updating our assessment of the impacts of climate change on water supply and demand. As we await more information on the long-term water-use regulations from the State of California, it's important that we make water-use efficiency a way of life. Using water wisely will ensure that we have enough water in dry years and for generations to come.

Visit for details.

Water Quality

The Water Quality Lab

Lab equipmentWater professionals collect samples from throughout the water system for testing at our state-of-the-art water quality laboratory, which is certified each year through the stringent Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (ELAP). Scientists, chemists, and microbiologists test the water for 326 constituents with equipment so sensitive it can detect levels as low as one part per trillion. In order to maintain the ELAP certification, all of our scientists must pass blind-study proficiency tests for every water quality test performed. Water quality test results are entered into our Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS), a sophisticated software program that enables us to react quickly to changes in water quality and analyze water quality trends in order to plan effectively for future needs.

Cross-Connection Control

To ensure that the high-quality water we deliver is not compromised in the distribution system, Cal Water has a robust cross-connection control program in place. Cross-connection control is critical to ensuring that activities on customers' properties do not affect the public water supply. Our cross-connection control specialists ensure that all of the existing backflow prevention assemblies are tested annually, assess all connections, and enforce and manage the installation of new commercial and residential assemblies.

Backflow can occur when certain pressure conditions exist either in our distribution system or within the customer's plumbing, so our customers are our first line of defense. A minor home improvement project—without the proper protections—can create a potentially hazardous situation, so careful adherence to plumbing codes and standards will ensure the community's water supply remains safe. Please be sure to utilize the advice or services of a qualified plumbing professional.

Many water-use activities involve substances that, if allowed to enter the distribution system, would be aesthetically displeasing or could even present health concerns. Some common cross-connections are:

  • Garden hoses connected to a hose bib without a simple hose-type vacuum breaker (available at a home improvement store)
  • Improperly installed toilet tank fill valves that do not have the required air gap between the valve or refill tube
  • Landscape irrigation systems that do not have the proper backflow prevention assembly installed on the supply line

The list of materials that could potentially contaminate the water system is vast. According to the EPA, a wide variety of substances have contaminated drinking water systems throughout the country as a result of poor cross-connection control. Examples include:

  • Antifreeze from a heating system
  • Lawn chemicals from a garden hose or sprinkler head
  • Blue water from a toilet tank
  • Carbonated water from a soda dispenser

Customers must ensure that all plumbing is in conformance with local plumbing codes. Additionally, state law requires certain types of facilities to install and maintain backflow prevention assemblies at the water meter. Cal Water's cross-connection control staff will determine whether you need to install a backflow prevention assembly based on water uses at your location.


By the end of 2002, Cal Water had submitted to the Division of Drinking Water (DDW) a Drinking Water Source Assessment and Protection Program (DWSAPP) report for each water source in the water system. The DWSAPP report identifies possible sources of contamination to aid in prioritizing cleanup and pollution prevention efforts. All reports are available for viewing or copying at our Customer Center.

The water sources in your system are considered most vulnerable to the following activities, for which no associated contaminant has been detected:

  • Agricultural drainage
  • Grazing
  • Wastewater treatment plants
  • Historic gas stations
  • Septic systems

We encourage customers to join us in our efforts to prevent water pollution and protect our most precious natural resource.

2020 Results


State law requires Cal Water to add fluoride to drinking water if public funding is available to pay for it, and it is a practice endorsed by the American Medical Association and the American Dental Association to prevent tooth decay. In this area, low levels of fluoride occur naturally, and Cal Water doesn't add any to the water supply. Show the table in this report to your dentist to see if he or she recommends giving your children fluoride supplements.

More information about fluoridation, oral health, and related issues can be found on the DDW web site at For general information on water fluoridation, visit us online at

Water Hardness

Hardness is a measure of the magnesium, calcium, and carbonate minerals in the water. Water is considered soft if its hardness is less than 75 parts per million (ppm), moderately hard at 75 to 150 ppm, hard between 150 and 300 ppm, and very hard at 300 ppm or higher.

Hard water is generally not a health concern, but it can have an impact on how well soap lathers and is significant for some industrial and manufacturing processes. Hard water may also lead to mineral buildup in pipes or water heaters.

Some people with hard water opt to buy a water softener for aesthetic reasons; however, some water softeners add salt to the water, which can cause problems at wastewater treatment plants. Additionally, people on low-sodium diets should be aware that some water softeners increase the sodium content of the water.

For more information on water hardness, visit

The current water quality table for your service area shows an average hardness of 89 ppm.

Possible Contaminants

Lab workAll drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk.

More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791.

The sources of drinking water (both tap and bottled) include rivers, lakes, streams, ponds, reservoirs, springs, and wells. As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and, in some cases, radioactive material, and can pick up substances resulting from the presence of animals or human activity.

Contaminants that may be present in source water include:

Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural livestock operations, and wildlife.

Inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals, which can be naturally occurring or result from urban stormwater runoff, industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining, or farming.

Pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban stormwater runoff, and residential uses.

Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are byproducts of industrial processes and petroleum production, and can also come from gas stations, urban stormwater runoff, agricultural application, and septic systems.

Radioactive contaminants, which can be naturally occurring or the result of oil and gas production and mining activities.

In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, the EPA and DDW prescribe regulations that limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. FDA regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water, which must provide the same protection for public health.

Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immunocompromised people, such as those with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, those who have undergone organ transplants, and those with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders; some elderly people; and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice from their health care providers about drinking water. EPA and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by cryptosporidium and other microbial contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline.

About Lead

MoleculesAs the issue of lead in water continues to be top of mind for many Americans, Cal Water wants to assure you about the quality of your water. We are compliant with health and safety codes mandating use of lead-free materials in water system replacements, repairs, and new installations. We have no known lead service lines in our systems. We test and treat (if necessary) water sources to ensure that the water delivered to customer meters meets all water quality standards and is not corrosive toward plumbing materials.

The water we deliver to your home meets lead standards. However, if present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing (for example, lead solder used to join copper plumbing, and brass and other lead-containing fixtures).

Cal Water is responsible for providing high-quality drinking water to our customers' meters, but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components. When your water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking or cooking.

If you are concerned about lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested by a certified lab. More information about lead in drinking water can be found on the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at

Results of our lead monitoring program, conducted in accordance with the Lead and Copper Rule, can be found in the Water Quality Table later in this document.

Testing for Lead in Schools

The State of California required that all public schools built before 2010 test for lead in their drinking water by July 1, 2019. We are committed to supporting our school districts' efforts to protect students and ensure that the drinking water at their school sites are below lead limits. We worked with all school districts in our service area that serve kindergarten through 12th grade to develop sampling plans, test samples, and conduct follow-up monitoring, if needed, for corrective actions.

For more information, please see our Testing for Lead in Schools web page. For specific information regarding local school data, see the state web portal.

Lead and Copper Rule

The lead and copper rule requires us to test water inside a representative number of homes that have plumbing most likely to contain lead and/or lead solder to determine the presence of lead and copper or any action level exceedance (AL). An action level is the concentration of a contaminant which, when exceeded, triggers corrective actions before it becomes a health concern. If action levels are exceeded, either at a customer's home or system-wide, we work with the customer to investigate the issue and/or implement corrosion control treatment to reduce lead levels.

Lead Service Line Inventory (LSLI)

Protecting our customers' health and safety is our highest priority. As part of this commitment, we have been working to identify and replace any old customer water service lines and fittings that may contain lead. California Senate Bill (SB) 1398 required all water utilities in California to develop an inventory of all distribution service line materials, and submit a list of known service lines to the state by 2018. A list of unknown service lines that may contain lead, along with a plan for replacement, was due to the state by July 1, 2020. Known lines are replaced as soon as possible.

More information regarding LSLI and specific data for each water system can be found on the state web site.


PFOS and PFOA are manmade compounds used prevalently in firefighting foams and to make carpets, clothing, fabrics for furniture, paper packaging for food, cookware, and other items resistant to water, grease, fire, or stains. They are also used in a number of industrial processes. They are part of a larger group of chemicals referred to as per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS).

In early 2020, DDW announced lower response levels for PFOA and PFOS (10 ppt for PFOA, and 40 ppt for PFOS) from the previous level of 70 ppt combined. The notification levels (5.1 ppt for PFOA, and 6.5 ppt for PFOS) were not changed.

Knowing that these are constituents of emerging concern, Cal Water had identified and tested water sources in 2019 and earlier that would be more likely to have these compounds present. With the updated response levels, we have conducted additional testing for these constituents in all of our water systems.

Studies indicate that long-term exposure to PFOS and PFOA over certain levels could have adverse health effects, including developmental effects to fetuses during pregnancy or infants; cancer; or liver, immunity, thyroid, and other effects. Potential health impacts related to PFAS compounds are still being studied, and research is still evolving on this issue.

Although there is no Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) set for these substances, we have proactively monitored sources and will continue to do so. Even though it is not required by the state, we believe it is the right thing to do. When an MCL is established by DDW for these compounds, we will continue to ensure our water sources are in compliance with any set standard.

While we are doing our part to treat the water and meet the standards the public health experts have set, it's important that our population as a whole focuses on being good stewards of the environment and takes steps to prevent impacting the water supply. Additionally, Cal Water has filed a lawsuit against a group of companies that manufactured and sold firefighting foam products that released the PFOS and PFOA into the environment, to ensure the responsible parties bear the costs of treating for these chemicals, not our customers. We are also encouraging the EPA to establish a consistent, science-based standard as quickly as feasible, and strongly support state legislation prohibiting the sale and use of certain products that contain PFAS and requiring the certification of accurate testing methods for PFAS.

More information on PFOS and PFOA is available on the DDW web site.

Key Definitions

Cat drinking waterMaximum Contaminant Level (MCL): The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. Primary MCLs protect public health and are set as close to the PHGs (or MCLGs) as are economically and technologically feasible. Secondary MCLs (SMCLs) relate to the odor, taste, and appearance of drinking water.

In Compliance: Does not exceed any applicable MCL, SMCL, or action level, as determined by DDW. For some compounds, compliance is determined by averaging the results for one source over a one-year period.

Regulatory Action Level (AL): The concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other required action by the water provider.

Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG): The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs are set by the EPA.

Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL): The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.

Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal (MRDLG): The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLGs are set by the EPA and do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbial contaminants.

Non-Detect (ND): The constituent was not detected.

Notification Level (NL) and Response Level (RL): Health-based advisory levels for unregulated contaminants in drinking water. They are used by DDW to provide guidance to drinking water systems.

Primary Drinking Water Standard (PDWS): MCLs and MRDLs for contaminants that affect health, along with their monitoring, reporting, and water treatment requirements.

Public Health Goal (PHG): The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. PHGs are set by the California Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment without regard to cost or available detection and treatment technologies.

Treatment Technique (TT): A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.

Table Introduction

Water dropsCal Water tests your water for more than 140 regulated contaminants and dozens of unregulated contaminants. This table lists only those contaminants that were detected.

In the table, water quality test results are divided into three major sections: "Primary Drinking Water Standards," "Secondary Drinking Water Standards," and "Unregulated Compounds." Primary standards protect public health by limiting the levels of certain constituents in drinking water. Secondary standards are set for substances that don't impact health but could affect the water's taste, odor, or appearance. Some unregulated substances (hardness and sodium, for example) are included for your information. The State allows us to monitor for some contaminants less than once per year because the concentrations of these contaminants do not change frequently. Some of our data, though representative, are more than one year old.

Substance Sources

  • DI: Byproduct of drinking water disinfection
  • DS: Drinking water disinfectant added for treatment
  • EN: Naturally present in the environment
  • ER: Erosion of natural deposits
  • FE: Human and animal waste
  • FL: Water additive that promotes strong teeth; discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories
  • FR: Runoff and leaching from fertilizer use; leaching from septic tanks and sewage
  • IC: Internal corrosion of household plumbing systems
  • IM: Discharge from industrial manufacturers
  • IO: Substances that form ions when in water
  • IW: Industrial waste
  • OD: Discharges of oil-drilling waste and from metal refineries
  • OM: Naturally occurring organic materials
  • PH: Inherent characteristic of water
  • RU: Runoff/leaching from natural deposits
  • SO: Soil runoff
  • SW: Seawater influence
  • WD: Leaching from wood preservatives
  • UR: Unregulated constituents with no source listed and that do not have standardized "source of substance" language

Our testing equipment is so sensitive, it can detect mineral traces as small as 1 part per trillion. That is equivalent to 1 inch in over 15 million miles.

2020 Water Quality

Primary Drinking Water Standards

Microbiological Year Tested Unit MCL PHG (MCLG) In Compliance Distribution System-Wide Source
Highest Monthly
Total coliform 2020 Positive samples 1 (0) Yes 0 EN
Fecal coliform and E. coli 2020 Positive samples 11 (0) Yes 0 FE
Inorganic Chemicals Year Tested Unit MCL PHG (MCLG) In Compliance Surface Water Source
Range Average
Barium 2020 ppm 1 2 (2) Yes ND–0.15 ND ER, OD
Fluoride 2020 ppm 2 1 (4.0) Yes ND–0.24 0.13 ER, FL
Nitrate as N2 2020 ppm 10 10 (10) Yes ND–6.1 1.1 ER, FR
Lead and Copper Year Tested Unit AL PHG (MCLG) In Compliance Distribution System-Wide Source
90th Percentile Samples > AL
Copper 2018 ppm 1.3 0.3 Yes 0.96 0 of 11 IC, ER, WD
Lead 2018 ppb 15 0.2 Yes 5.3 0 of 11 IC, IM, ER
Schools that requested lead sampling in 2020: 0
Disinfection Byproducts Year Tested Unit MCL PHG (MCLG) In Compliance Distribution System-Wide Source
Range Highest Annual Average
Haloacetic acids 2020 ppb 60 N/A Yes 14–21 18 DI
Total trihalomethanes 2020 ppb 80 N/A Yes 28–40 35 DI
Disinfectants Year Tested Unit MRDL MRDLG In Compliance Distribution System-Wide Source
Range Average
Total chlorine 2020 ppm 4 4 Yes 1.2–2.9 2.0 DS
Surface Water—Turbidity and TOC Year Tested Unit MCL PHG (MCLG) In Compliance Surface Water Only Source
Highest Level Lowest Monthly Percent <0.1 NTU
Turbidity3 2020 NTU TT N/A Yes 0.05 100% SO

Secondary Drinking Water Standards

Contaminants Year Tested Unit SMCL PHG (MCLG) In Compliance Surface Water Source
Range Average
Chloride 2020 ppm 500 N/A Yes 44–98 70 RU, SW
Specific conductance 2020 US 1600 N/A Yes 270–570 430 SW, IO
Iron 2020 ppb 300 N/A Yes ND–210 ND RU, IW
Manganese4 2020 ppb 50 N/A Yes ND–58 ND RU
Odor 2020 T.O.N. 3 N/A Yes ND–1.5 ND OM
Sulfate 2020 ppm 500 N/A Yes 8.6–53 19 RU, IW
Total dissolved solids 2020 ppm 1000 N/A Yes 160–320 244 RU

State Regulated Contaminants with Notification Levels

Contaminants Year Tested Unit NL PHG (MCLG) In Compliance Surface Water Source
Range Average
N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) 2020 ppt 10 3 Yes 2.0 2.0 UR

Unregulated Compounds

Constituents Year Tested Unit MCL PHG (MCLG) In Compliance Surface Water Source
Range Average
Alkalinity (total) 2020 ppm N/A N/A N/A 30–89 66 UR
Calcium 2020 ppm N/A N/A N/A 5.2–24 17 UR
Hardness (total) 2020 ppm N/A N/A N/A 32–130 89 UR
Potassium 2020 ppm N/A N/A N/A ND–2.1 0.21 UR
Magnesium 2020 ppm N/A N/A N/A 4.6–18 12 UR
Sodium 2020 ppm N/A N/A N/A 31–55 43 UR
pH 2020 STD U N/A N/A N/A 6.2–7.7 6.9 PH

1 This means one total coliform-positive routine sample and one repeat sample, with one of these also being E. coli-positive.

2 The average nitrate level was 1.1 ppm, with a maximum level of 6.1 ppm. We are closely monitoring the nitrate levels. Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of less than six months of age. Such nitrate levels in drinking water can interfere with the capacity of the infant's blood to carry oxygen, resulting in a serious illness; symptoms include shortness of breath and blueness of the skin. Nitrate levels above 10 ppm may also affect the ability of the blood to carry oxygen in other individuals, such as pregnant women and those with certain specific enzyme deficiencies. If you are caring for an infant or you are pregnant, you should seek advice from your health care provider.

3 For surface water systems, the treatment technique dictates that the turbidity level of the filtered water be less than or equal to 0.1 NTU in 95% of the measurements taken each month and not exceed 1 NTU at any time. Turbidity is a measurement of the cloudiness of water. We monitor it because it is a good indicator of the effectiveness of our filtration system.

4 In one manganese sample collected, the value was greater than the SMCL; however, this is in compliance as the average is less than the SMCL, and immediate resampling showed a normal result of ND. The SMCL was set to protect you against unpleasant aesthetic effects, such as color, taste, odor, and the staining of plumbing fixtures and clothing when washed. Exceeding this SMCL does not pose a health risk.

Thank You

DaisyThanks for taking the time to learn more about your water quality! Even more information awaits you at Visit our web site to get information about your account, water-use history, water rates, and water system.

You will also find water-saving tips and news about water conservation programs and rebates available in your area.